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Aleksandra Milewska

Aleksandra Milewska Ph.D.
Laboratory of Virology MCB
Department of Microbiology FBBB
E-mail: Aleksandra.Milewska [AT]

Research interests

  • Flaviviruses
  • Evolution of coronaviral genomes.
  • Development of novel inhibitory compounds against viral diseases.

Grants And Awards
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    • May 2013: Identification of the APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases as an additional human defense system against RNA viruses, on the example of coronaviruses. 2013-2016. Preludium grant, National Science Centre. PI: Aleksandra Milewska, Scientific supervisor: Krzysztof Pyrc
    • May 2013: "Doctus" scholarship by the Małopolskie Centre of Entrepreneurship.
    • May 2011: "In situ isothermic PCR for rapid virological diagnosis". BioIdea award from JCI venture
    • July 2010 - June2011: Member of the TEAM project ("Targeting P. gingivalis enzymes to cure/prevent diseases")

    • December 2016: PhD Thesis. 'Early steps of human coronavirus NL63 infection' Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University.
    • October 2011 - : PhD student at Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology JU.
    • June 2011: Master degree thesis in the field of biotechnology "Modulation of epidermal growth factor biological activity by Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase", Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Krakow, Poland
    • February - June 2010 - 5-month training at Department of Medical Microbiology (Laboratory of Experimental Virology), Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands - involved in a project concerning deregulation of the renin-angiotensin system and impact of coronavirus infections in elderly population.

    1. Pyrc K, Milewska A, Baretto Duran E, Botwina P, Lopes R, Arenas-Pinto A, Badr M, Mellor R, Kalber T, Fernandez-Reyes D, Schatzlein AG, Uchegbu IF. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 inhibition in human airway epithelial cells using a mucoadhesive, amphiphilic chitosan that may serve as an anti-viral nasal spray. BioRxiv. doi: 10.1101/2020.12.10.413609
    2. Kula-Pacurar A, Wadas J, Suder A, Szczepanski A, Milewska A, Ochman M, Stacel T, Pyrc K. (2020). Visualization of SARS-CoV-2 Using Immuno RNA-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization. JoVE. in press.
    3. Milewska A, Chi Y, Szczepanski A, Barreto-Duran E, Dabrowska A, Botwina P, Liu K, Liu D, Guo X, Ge Y, Li J, Cui L, Ochman M, Urlik M, Rodziewicz-Motowidlo S, Zhu F, Szczubialka K, Nowakowska M, Pyrc K. (2020). HTCC as a highly effective polymeric inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Journal of Virology. in press.
    4. Milewska A, Falkowski K, Kulczycka M, Bielecka E, Naskalska A, Mak P, Lesner A, Ochman M, Urlik M, Diamandis E, Prassas I, Potempa J, Kantyka T, Pyrc K. Kallikrein 13 serves as a priming protease during infection by the human coronavirus HKU1. Science Signaling. (2020). in press.
    5. Dabrowska A, Milewska A, Ner-Kluza J, Suder P, Pyrc K. Zika virus NS3 protease and its cellular substrates. (2020). Biorxiv. doi:
    6. Pancer K, Milewska A, Owczarek K, Dabrowska A, Kowalski M, Labaj P, Branicki W, Sanak M, Pyrc K. The SARS-CoV-2 ORF10 is not essential in vitro or in vivo in humans. (2020). PLoS Pathogens. in press.
    7. Milewska A, Owczarek K, Szczepanski A, Pyrc K. Visualizing Coronavirus Entry into Cells. (2020) Methods in Molecular Biology. 2203:241-261.
    8. Milewska A, Chi Y, Szczepanski A, Barreto-Duran E, Liu K, Liu D, Guo X, Ge Y, Li J, Cui L, Ochman M, Urlik M, Rodziewicz-Motowidlo S, Zhu F, Szczubialka K, Nowakowska M, Pyrc K. HTCC as a highly effective polymeric inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Biorxiv repository.
    9. Milewska A, Kula-Pacurar A, Wadas J, Suder A, Szczepanski A, Dabrowska A, Owczarek K, Ochman M, Stacel T, Rajfur Z, Sanak M, Labaj P, Branicki W, Pyrc K. Replication of SARS-CoV-2 in human respiratory epithelium. (2020) Journal of Virology. doi:
    10. Milewska A, Ner-Kluza J, Dabrowska A, Bodzon-Kulakowska A, Pyrc K, Suder P. (2019). Mass spectrometry in virological sciences. Mass Spectrometry Reviews. in press.
    11. Naskalska A, Dabrowska A, Szczepanski A, Milewska A, Jasik K, Pyrc K.  (2019). Membrane protein of HCoV-NL63 is responsible for interaction with the adhesion receptor. Journal of Virologyin press.
    12. Skorenski M, Milewska A, Pyrc K, Sienczyk M, Oleksyszyn J. (2019). Phosphonate inhibitors of West Nile virus NS2B/NS3 protease. Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry. 34(1):8-14.
    13. Naskalska A, Dabrowska A, Nowak P, Szczepanski A, Jasik K, Milewska A, Ochman M, Zeglen S, Rajfur Z, Pyrc K. (2018). Novel coronavirus like particles targeting cells lining the respiratory tract. PLoS One. in press.
    14. Szczepanski A, Owczarek K, Milewska A, Baster Z, Rajfur Z, Mitchell J, Pyrc K. (2018) Canine respiratory coronavirus employs caveolin-1-mediated pathway for internalization to HRT-18G cells. Veterinary Research. 49:55
    15. Owczarek K, Szczepanski A, Milewska A, Baster Z, Rajfur Z, Sarna M, Pyrc K. (2018) Early events during human coronavirus OC43 entry to the cell. Scientific Reports. 8(1):7124.
    16. Milewska A, Kindler E, Vkovski P, Zeglen S, Ochman M, Thiel V, Rajfur Z, Pyrc K.(2018) APOBEC3-mediated restriction of RNA virus replication. Scientific Reports. 8(1):5960.
    17. A Milewska, P Nowak, K Owczarek, A Szczepanski, M Zarebski, A Hoang-Bujnowicz, K Berniak, J Wojarski, S Zeglen, Z Baster, Z Rajfur, K Pyrc (2017) Entry of human coronavirus NL63 to the cell. Journal of virology. 92(3). pii: e01933-17.
    18. Milewska A, Kaminski K, Ciejka J, Kosowicz K, Zeglen S, Wojarski J, Nowakowska M, Szczubialka K#, Pyrc K# (2016) HTCC: broad range inhibitor of coronavirus entry. PLoS One. 11(6):e0156552.
    19. Ciejka J, Milewska A, Wytrwal M, Wojarski J, Golda A, Ochman M, Nowakowska M, Szczubialka K#, Pyrc K#. (2015) Novel polyanions inhibiting replication of influenza viruses. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (AAC). 60(4):1955-66.
    20. Benedyk M., Mydel P., Płaza K., Gawron K., Milewska A., Maresz K., Koziel J., Jotwani R., Pyrc K., & Potempa J. (2015) Gingipains: critical factors in the development of aspiration pneumonia caused by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Journal of Innate Immunity. in press.
    21. Huang X, Dong W, Milewska A, Golda A, Qi Y, Zhu Q, Marasco W, Baric R, Sims A#, Pyrc K#, Li W#, Sui J#. (2015). HCoV-HKU1 Spike protein uses O-acetylated sialic acid as an attachment receptor determinant and employs HE protein as a receptor-destroying enzyme. Journal of Virology. In press.
    22. Milewska A, Zarebski M, Nowak P, Stozek K, Potempa J, Pyrc K#. (2014) Human coronavirus NL63 utilize heparan sulfate proteoglycans for attachment to target cells. Journal of Virology. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02078-14.
    23. Milewska A, Ciejka J, Kaminski K, Karewicz A, Bielska D, Zeglen S, Karolak W, Nowakowska M, Potempa J, Bosch BJ, Pyrc K#, Szczubialka K#. 2012. Novel polymeric inhibitors of HCoV-NL63. Antiviral Research. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.11.006
    24. Pyrc K, Milewska A, Kantyka T, Sroka A, Maresz K, Kozieł J, Nguyen KA, Enghild JJ., Knudsen AD, Potempa J. Inactivation of epidermal growth factor by Porphyromonas gingivalis as a potential mechanism for periodontal tissue damage. (2013) Infection and Immunity, 81(1):55 doi: 10.1128/​IAI.00830-12.
    25. Milewska A, Pyrc K, Human RIG-1/Mda5 and TLR3 signaling pathways and their role in antiviral response during mucosal infections, Recent Research Developments in Virology, (2012) ISBN: 978-81-7895-563-6, Transworld Research Network
    26. Dijkman R, Jebbink MF, Deijs M, Milewska A, Pyrc K, Buelow E, van der Bijl A, van der Hoek L. Replication dependent downregulation of cellular ACE2 protein expression by Human Coronavirus NL63.Journal of General Virology. 2012. doi:10.1099/vir.0.043919-0.
    27. Pyrc K, Strzyz P, Milewska A, Golda A, Schildgen O, Potempa J; 2011; Porphyromonas gingivalis enzymes enhance infection with human metapneumovirus in vitro. Journal of General Virology. J Gen Virol. 2011 Oct;92(Pt 10):2324-32
    28. Pyrc K, Milewska A, Potempa J; 2011; Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detection of human coronavirus-NL63. Journal of Virological Methods. 175(1): 133-136.

    1. P. 409 015: The use of polymers in the treatment and prevention of infections caused by human metapneumovirus virus.
    2. PCT/PL2013/00064. The use of chitosan polymer in the treatment and prevention of infections caused by coronaviruses.
    3. P 399 246. Application of chitosan derivatives for treatment and prophylaxis od coronaviral infection.